// Adygea, Republic of >>
// Altai (Gorno-Altai), Republic of >>
// Bashkortostan, Republic of >>
// Buryatia, Republic of >>
// Chechnya, Republic of >>
// Chuvashia, Republic of >>
// Dagestan, Republic of >>
// Ingushetia, Republic of >>
// Kabardino-Balkaria, Republic of >>
// Kalmykia, Republic of >>
// Karachayevo-Cherkessia, Republic of >>
// Karelia, Republic of >>
// Khakassia, Republic of >>
// Komi, Republic of >>
// Mari El, Republic of >>
// Mordovia, Republic of >>
// North Ossetia, Republic of >>
// Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of >>
// Tatarstan, Republic of >>
// Tuva, Republic of >>
// Udmurtia, Republic of >>
// Territories (Krai)
// Altai Territory >>
// Khabarovsk Territory >>
// Krasnodar Territory >>
// Krasnoyarsk Territory >>
// Primorye (Maritime) Territory >>
// Stavropol Territory >>
// Amur Region >>
// Arkhangelsk Region >>
// Astrakhan Region >>
// Belgorod Region >>
// Bryansk Region >>
// Chelyabinsk Region >>
// Chita Region >>
// Irkutsk Region >>
// Ivanovo Region >>
// Kaliningrad Region >>
// Kaluga Region >>
// Kamchatka Region >>
// Kemerovo Region >>
// Kirov Region >>
// Kostroma Region >>
// Kurgan Region >>
// Kursk Region >>
// Leningrad Region >>
// Lipetsk Region >>
// Magadan Region >>
// Moscow Region >>
// Murmansk Region >>
// Nizhny Novgorod Region >>
// Novgorod Region >>
// Novosibirsk Region >>
// Omsk Region >>
// Orel Region >>
// Orenburg Region >>
// Penza Region >>
// Perm Region >>
// Pskov Region >>
// Rostov Region >>
// Ryazan Region >>
// Sakhalin Region >>
// Samara Region >>
// Saratov Region >>
// Smolensk Region >>
// Sverdlovsk Region >>
// Tambov Region >>
// Tomsk Region >>
// Tula Region >>
// Tver Region >>
// Tyumen Region >>
// Ulyanovsk Region >>
// Vladimir Region >>
// Volgograd Region >>
// Vologda Region >>
// Voronezh Region >>
// Yaroslavl Region >>
// Federal Cities
// Moscow >>
// St. Petersburg >>
// Autonomous Areas (Okrugs)
// Agin-Buryatia Autonomous Area >>
// Chukotka Autonomous Area >>
// Evenk Autonomous Area >>
// Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area >>
// Komi-Permyak Autonomous Area >>
// Koryak Autonomous Area >>
// Nenets Autonomous Area
// Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Area >>
// Ust-Ordynsky Buryat Autonomous Area >>
// Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area >>
// Autonomous Regions
// Jewish Autonomous Region >>
Nenets Autonomous Area
// GENERAL INFORMATION
The Nenets Autonomous Area borders on the Komi Republic in the south, Arkhangelsk Region in the southwest, and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in the northeast. The area extends in a belt along the Arctic coast, with shorelines on the White, Barents, and Kara seas. It covers an area of 176 700 km2 and includes Kolguev and Vaigan islands. The main river is the Pechora.
The area has a harsh climate with average January temperatures ranging from -12 °C in the southwest to -22 °C in the northeast and average July temperatures from +6 °C in the north to +13 °C in the south; average annual precipitation is about 350 mm; permafrost zones are encountered.
The Nenets Autonomous Area is part of the Northern economic district of the Russian Federation. The leading economic activities are reindeer herding, fishing, hunting, and sealing. Fur farming and the fuel and food industries are other developed sectors. Oil fields in the area are being developed.
The area was formed on July 15, 1929. It includes 1 city, 2 towns, and 16 rural administrations. The population is 48 100 (59.7% urban), and the population density is 0.3 people per km2. There are two ports: Naryan-Mar and Amderma.
The capital of the Nenets Autonomous Area is Naryan-Mar (pop. 26 600) 2230 km northeast of Moscow. The area is located in the Pechora Lowlands, which extend from Timan Ridge to the Pai-Khoi Range. Naryan-Mar is situated above the Arctic Circle on the region's largest river, the Pechora. The city has a river dock 110 km from the Barents Sea and an airport.
Seven general education schools, 12 preschools, 5 libraries, 4 club associations, a vocational school, the Nenets Veterinary College, and the Vyuchesky Teacher's College operate in Naryan-Mar. Naryan-Mar is a permanent member of the Union of Polar and Far Northern Cities.
Settlement of the northern territories began in the far distant past. The most northerly Paleolithic site in Europe, Primvashor I, located in Bolshezemelskoe Zapolyarye, was discovered in the Nenets Autonomous Area. Trade and contacts between the inhabitants of the northern region have existed for thousands of years.
The city of Naryan-Mar arose on the site of the settlement of Beloshchelye and a number of villages and hamlets. It received official city status on March 19, 1935. Naryan-Mar means "Red City" in the Nenets language.
Starting in 1936, the city was built up according to a regular plan (a rectangular street network with a square in the center), mainly with two-story wooden frame houses.
Construction of multistoried brick buildings began in the city center in the early 1960s. The main occupations of the local population were and still are hunting and reindeer herding. The oldest company in Naryan-Mar is the Pechora Sawmill (Pechorsky lesozavod) founded in 1903 by the Stella Polyare Association headed by Norwegian timber merchant Martin Olsen. Foreign lumber ships arrive at the port of Naryan-Mar for the famous Pechora boards during each navigation season from May through October.
Permafrost and the harsh climate prevent more rapid development of this region.
A multinational community of geologists and fishermen that is celebrated in the songs and verses of local poets and writers lives and works here.
The Nenets Autonomous Area is located on the northern part of the East European Plain. The land is mostly flat; the dominant topographical features are Timan Ridge, the Pai-Khoi Range and the boggy ground of the Bolshezemelskaya and Malozemelskaya tundras.
The Arctic Ocean seas on the area's northern boundary influence the climate (a zone of intensive cyclonic activity), which is characterized by cold winters and relatively short warm summers.
Along with the Pechora River, the area has a dense network of small rivers and lakes, which are often connected by short channels or rivulets (e.g., Vashutkin Lakes). The seas, lakes, and rivers have an abundance of valuable fish, including members of the cod and salmon families, herring, and haddock.
The predominant soils in the area are tundra-gley (a sticky claylike soil) and peaty-gley varieties. The vegetation consists of shrub-and-moss and grass-and-moss tundra. Valuable fur-bearing animals inhabit the tundra.
An environmental protection agreement between the Administration of Naryan-Mar and three research institutes in Trondheim, Norway, has been in effect since 1995.
The main industrial sectors are the food industry (fish, milk, and meat canning) and the forest industry. A Timan-Pechora territorial production complex is forming around development of oil, gas, and coal fields in the Nenets Autonomous Area and the Komi Republic.
Agricultural land occupies only 0.2% of the lands in the area; 0.8% of this land is cultivated. Dairy farming and reindeer herding are the most important sectors. Crops are limited mainly to potatoes and turnips, although greenhouse farming is expanding.
The largest industry in Naryan-Mar is AO Myasoprodukty, which delivers tens of tons of a wide variety of meat products to stores in the city and other parts of the area. AO Khlebokombinat supplies Naryan-Mar and neighboring communities with brown bread, sweet spice cake, crackers, delicious pastries, and pretzels.
Other leading companies in Naryan-Mar are AO Pechorsky Les and Pechora Fish Processing Plant (Pechorsky rybokombinat); the fish plant employs more than 170 people and produces 50 different kinds of fish products. The leading companies in the community of Kharengdu are Arkhneftegaz and Komineft Production Association (PO Komineft).
Deerskin boots, birchbark boxes, slippers, hats, and Nenets souvenirs made by the Yalumd Society are famous in the city and area and far beyond its borders.
Naryan-Mar is the capital of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province, a region with huge oil reserves. The area's oil fields are being developed, and gas and coal fields have been explored. Negotiations between Russian and foreign oil companies and international seminars have become a regular event in the public life of the city and area.
Naryan-Mar has commercial and economic, scientific and technical, and cultural cooperation agreements with Arkhangelsk, Mariupol, Moscow, and Ukhta.
The main forms of transportation are air and sea (ports in Naryan-Mar and Amderma). The port of Naryan-Mar has 500 m of well-equipped berthage and enough space for warehousing and storing various cargoes.
The Governor, as head of the Administration of the Nenets Autonomous Area, is the area's highest executive official. The Assembly of Deputies is the highest legislative body.
CULTURE AND ART
A network of cultural facilities has been set up and is operating in the Nenets Autonomous District. There are also amateur folk art groups, many of which have won numerous prizes at Russian and foreign reviews and festivals. They include groups like the Khayar (Sun) Nenets National Youth Choral and Dance Ensemble, the Smirnov Russian Folksong Choir, the Maimbava (Joy) Nenets National Folklore Ensemble, the Severyanka Russian Folk Instrument Orchestra, the Northern Youth (Yunost Severa) Folk Dance Ensemble, and the folk choir of the village of Nes.
Other cultural organizations in Naryan-Mar include a children's House of the Arts, a municipal House of Culture (founded in 1948), art schools, libraries, and clubs.
Unofficial Site of Nenets Autonomous Area: http://nao.nm.ru/